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107 年至 109 年建立臺灣環境衛生病媒害蟲監測及防治技術計畫 (第二年)
The Establishment of Taiwan Environmental Vector and Pest Monitoring and Control Technology Plan 2018-2020 (The Second Year)

  • 發布單位:毒物及化學物質局
107 年至 109 年建立臺灣環境衛生病媒害蟲監測及防治技術計畫 (第二年)
專案計畫編號108D002
經費年度2019
計畫經費 千元
專案日期2019-01-04 ~ 2019-12-31
專案主持人白秀華
主辦單位毒物及化學物質局
承辦人張雅筑
執行單位國立高雄大學
專案分類毒物管理
中文關鍵字環境害蟲、市售殺蟲劑、抗藥性、藥效檢測
英文關鍵字environmental pests, commercial pesticides, resistance, efficacy test
協同主持人徐爾烈
共同主持人
計畫聯絡人王璿
中文摘要

臺灣地處亞熱帶,氣候溫暖潮濕,環境適合蚊、蟑螂、蠅、蛾蚋、塵蟎及臭蟲等孳生,其不僅為居家內、外重要的環境衛生病媒害蟲,也代表環境良窳的指標。環境衛生病媒害蟲之防治,首重環境衛生改善,但非一朝一夕能達此目標,治標的方式仍以殺蟲劑的緊急防治始能取得即時效果,而其成效的好壞,有賴於對害蟲生態習性之瞭解、害蟲發生之監測、殺蟲劑的選擇及抗藥性的定期偵測,才能規劃正確的綜合防治方法,本研究團隊已於 106 年完成臺灣環境衛生病媒害蟲:蚊、蠅類、蟑螂、蛾蚋、塵蟎及臭蟲之種類及密度調查,建立檢測族群;並於 107 年完成建立上述害蟲品系對臺灣常見 10 種殺蟲劑 (賽滅寧、治滅寧、百滅寧、第滅寧、陶斯松、撲滅松、亞特松、安丹、芬普尼及益達胺) 之感藥性資料及鑑識劑量 (濃度) (discriminating dose or diagnostic dose);本年度計畫以 107 年建立之各環境衛生害蟲族群之感藥性資料為依據,以最高抗藥品系對市售殺蟲劑進行藥效檢測。  以最高抗藥品系之白線斑蚊、埃及斑蚊及熱帶家蚊對 4 種常見市售殺蟲劑劑型 (高壓噴霧劑、蚊香類劑型、燻煙劑及片劑) 進行藥效檢測,結果顯示 8 種高壓噴霧劑、8 種蚊香類劑型、8 種燻煙劑及 8 種片劑對白線斑蚊及埃及斑蚊之藥效,皆達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準;8 種高壓噴霧劑、8 種蚊香類劑型、8 種燻煙劑及 5 種片劑對熱帶家蚊之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準,與產品標示之防治效果相符。  以最高抗藥品系之德國蟑螂及美洲蟑螂對 4 種常見市售殺蟲劑劑型 (高壓噴霧劑、液劑、燻煙劑及餌劑) 進行藥效檢測,結果顯示 8 種高壓噴霧劑、8 種液劑、2 種燻煙劑及 8 種餌劑對德國蟑螂之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準;8 種高壓噴霧劑、8 種液劑、8 種燻煙劑及 8 種餌劑對美洲蟑螂之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準,與產品標示之防治效果相符。 以最高抗藥品系之普通家蠅、大頭金蠅及黑腹果蠅對 4 種常見市售殺蟲劑劑型 (高壓噴霧劑、液劑、燻煙劑及餌劑) 進行藥效檢測,結果顯示,4 種高壓噴霧劑、5 種液劑、8 種燻煙劑及 8 種餌劑對普通家蠅之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準;5 種高壓噴霧劑、7 種液劑、8 種燻煙劑及 8 種餌劑對大頭金蠅之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準;8 種高壓噴霧劑、8 種液劑、8 種燻煙劑及 7 種餌劑對黑腹果蠅,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準,與產品標示之防治效果相符。 以最高抗藥品系之白斑蛾蚋對 2 種常見市售殺蟲劑劑型 (高壓噴霧劑及乳劑) 進行藥效檢測,結果顯示 2 種高壓噴霧劑及 2 種乳劑對白斑蛾蚋之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準,與產品標示之防治效果相符。  以溫帶臭蟲對2 種常見市售殺蟲劑劑型 (高壓噴霧劑及乳劑) 進行藥效檢測,結果顯示 1 種高壓噴霧劑及 1 種乳劑對溫帶臭蟲之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準,與產品標示之防治效果相符。  以歐洲室塵蟎對常見市售殺蟲劑劑型 (高壓噴霧劑) 進行藥效檢測,結果顯示 5 種高壓噴霧劑對歐洲室塵蟎之藥效,達環保署環境衛生用藥許可證登記防治效能之藥效檢測結果審查基準,與產品標示之防治效果相符。  建立前項各害蟲最高抗藥品系對常見市售殺蟲劑檢測資料,提供病媒防治業者、環境用藥製造業者、環保單位及民眾作為選擇依據,增加噴藥技術人員之知識及藥劑選擇的適用性,並提供藥效檢測規範建議。未來將進一步以本研究團隊建立之感藥性鑑識劑量 (濃度),進行廣範圍抗藥性分析及交互抗性之研究,建立病媒害蟲野外族群之快篩檢測技術方法,發展上述各種害蟲簡易之抗藥性檢測方法,以作為培訓基層工作人員進行抗藥性偵測之應用,完善環境用藥之管理及提升害蟲綜合防治之體系。

英文摘要

Taiwan is situated in a subtropical zone and has a warm and humid climate. Its environment is suitable for breeding mosquitoes, cockroaches, flies, moth flies, dust mites, and bedbugs, which are not only important pests inside and outside homes but are also an indicator of environmental quality. The first step of pest control is the sanitary improvement, but the goal cannot be achieved in a short time. The temporary solution is still to use pesticides for emergency control. This can realize immediate results, but its effectiveness depends on understanding the ecological habits of pests, pest monitoring, pesticide selection, and regular detection of drug resistance. In this way, a correct integrated control method can be planned. This study team completed a survey on the species and densities of pests in Taiwan in 2017, including mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, moth flies, dust mites, and bedbugs, built test populations, and established the drug-susceptibility data and discriminating dose (concentration) of the above pest species to ten common pesticides (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur, fipronil, and imidacloprid) in Taiwan in 2018. In this annual program, based on the drug-susceptibility data of various pests established in 2018, the specie strains with the highest resistant were used to test the efficacies of commercial pesticides.   The specie strains with the highest resistant of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, were used to test the efficacies of the commercial pesticides in four common dosage forms (aerosol, mosquito fumier, fumigant, and mosquito repellent tablet), and the results showed that the efficacies of eight aerosols, eight mosquito fumiers, eight fumigants, and eight mosquito repellent tablets on Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, the efficacies of eight aerosols, eight mosquito fumiers, eight fumigants, and five mosquito repellent tablets on Culex quinquefasciatus met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration and were consistent with the control effects marked on the products.   The specie strains with the highest resistant of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, were used to test the efficacies of the commercial pesticides in four common dosage forms (aerosol, liquid, fumigant and bait), and the results showed that the efficacies of eight aerosols, eight liquids, two fumigants, and eight baits on Blattella germanica met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration. The efficacies of eight aerosols, eight liquids, eight fumigants, and eight baits on Periplaneta americana met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration and were consistent with the control effects marked on the products. The specie strains with the highest resistant of Musca domestica, Chrysomya megacephala and Drosophila melanogaster, were used to test the efficacies of the commercial pesticides in four common dosage forms (aerosol, liquid, fumigant and bait), and the results showed that the efficacies of four aerosols, five liquids, eight fumigants, and eight baits on Musca domestica met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration. The efficacies of five aerosols, seven liquids, eight fumigants, and eight baits on Chrysomya megacephala met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration. The efficacies of eight aerosols, eight liquids, eight fumigants, and seven baits on Drosophila melanogaster met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration and were consistent with the control effects marked on the products. The species of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus with the highest resistant were used to test the efficacies of the commercial pesticides in two common dosage forms (aerosol and emulsion), and the results showed that the efficacies of two aerosols and two emulsions on Telmatoscopus albipunctatus met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration and were consistent with the control effects marked on the products. Cimex lectularius was used to test the efficacies of the commercial pesticides in two common dosage forms (aerosol and emulsion), and the results showed that the efficacies of one aerosol and one emulsion on Cimex lectularius met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration and were consistent with the control effects marked on the products. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were used to test the efficacies of the commercial pesticides in common dosage forms (aerosol), and the results showed that the efficacies of five aerosols on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus met the environmental sanitary drug efficacy test and examination standards of the Environmental Protection Administration and were consistent with the control effects marked on the products. The test data of the common commercial pesticides mentioned in the preceding paragraph on various pest species with the highest resistant were established to be used as the basis for vector control companies, environmental drug producers, environmental protection units, and the public in selection, to increase the knowledge of spray technicians and the applicability of pesticide selection as well as provide suggestions on efficacy test specifications. In the future, the discriminating doses (concentration) established by this study team will be further used to conduct a wide-ranging drug resistance analysis and a cross resistance study, establish rapid screening test methods for wild vector populations, and develop the various simple methods described above to test the drug resistance of pests, so as to train primary-level workers to test drug resistance, improve environmental drug management, and enhance the integrated pest control system.

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  • 資料發布日期:110-04-20
  • 資料更新日期:110-04-21
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