|專案日期||2021-01-21 ~ 2021-12-31|
|英文關鍵字||Chemical Substances, Environmental distribution, River, Sediment, Fish, Multiple media transport, Management for release of chemical substances|
本計畫主要目的包括(1)優先調查化學物質於臺灣本島主要15條河川環境流布進行調查，並與歷年資料進行比對分析、(2)進行河川流域之特定範圍與特定化學物質項目，比對相關排放源並模擬研析流布途徑，與(3) 研析國內毒性化學物質釋放量清冊管理策略及應用模式。第一部分已完成南崁溪、頭前溪、客雅溪、中港溪、後龍溪、大安溪、烏溪、北港溪、朴子溪、鹽水溪、二仁溪、典寶溪、東港溪、蘭陽溪及新城溪等15條河川之底泥及魚體採樣及分析，檢測項目包括，全氟烷基化合物、大克蟎、嘉磷塞及氨基甲基膦酸、短鏈氯化石蠟、壬基酚及雙酚A、鄰苯二甲酸酯類、多溴二苯醚類及六溴聯苯類、多環芳香烴化合物、金屬及甲基汞等9類113種檢測物質，獲得18,758筆檢測數據。環境流布調查結果發現有些化學物質含量較初期調查結果有降低趨勢，顯示列管後有助於降低底泥與魚體中化學物質濃度。惟本年度調查結果發現部分檢測項目如壬基酚、雙酚A、鄰苯二甲酸二（2-乙基己基）酯及多溴二苯醚類之測值相較前一次調查結果有上升情形，建議應持續監測觀察其環境流布之趨勢，未來可繼續納入國際關注、國內使用量高、具環境及人體危害特性之化學物質進行長期調查。第二部分以地下水擴散模擬進行典寶溪流域及鹽水溪流域之多介質與健康風險評估，健康風險評估結果顯示，人體主要暴露鄰苯二甲酸酯類化合物途徑為吸入及皮膚接觸，而於所有模擬情境中95th致癌風險及95th非致癌風險皆低於產生健康危害效應之閾值。管理決策應用工具部分，藉由熱點分析、桑基圖及調查指紋結果圖等可觀察出特定污染物於特定時間點及特定介質中之分布關聯，進而作為管理決策參考依據。第三部分為完成彙整美國、加拿大、歐盟、日本、澳洲等國釋放量清冊管理策略與清冊資訊系統，並規劃我國毒性化學物質釋放量清冊管理策略及資訊系統架構，完成釋放量資料驗證及不確定性評估模式彙整，完成辦理「建置我國毒性化學物質釋放量清冊管理策略」座談會，完成彙整美國及歐盟於毒性化學物質釋放量資料之管理應用模式工具，完成鄰苯二甲酸二（2-乙基己基）酯、雙酚A、氯乙烯及壬基酚四種毒性化學物質之我國風險篩選環境指標(Taiwan RSEI)分析。針對鄰苯二甲酸二（2-乙基己基）酯、鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯、十溴二苯醚、雙酚A及壬基酚完成跨資料庫（釋放量、運作量及環境流布調查資料庫）之趨勢分析及主題式視覺化呈現，亦協助提供業者釋放量估算方法選擇、釋放量計算及參數資料介接諮詢。
The aims of the present project were to (1) investigate distribution of concerned chemicals in fifteen rivers around Taiwan, (2) simulate distribution patterns of certain chemicals in a specific river, and (3) propose management strategies for Taiwan release data of chemical substances. First, sediment and fish samples were collected from fifteen Taiwanese rivers (i.e., Nankan River, Toucian River, Keya River, Jhonggang River, Houlong River, Da-an River, Wu River, Beigang River, Puzih River, Yanshuei River, Erren River, Dian Bao River, Donggang River, Lanyang River and Shincheng River). Concentrations of Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), dicofol, glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters (PAEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabrominated biphenyls (HBB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metal and methylmercury were measured in collected samples and 18,758 analyzed data were obtained. The analyzed concentrations of some chemicals in sediments showed decreasing trend. Those results indicated that the control strategies of those chemicals are available to reduce their releasing into the environment. However, the concentrations of few chemicals (e.g., NP, BPA, PAEs and PBDEs) were higher than those in the previous investigated year, suggesting it was necessary to continuously monitoring their distribution trend. In the future, candidate chemicals with global concerns, high production volume, environmental hazards and human health effects could be further included for long-term investigation. Second, assessments of the multiple media transport and health risk of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Dianbao river basin and Yanshui river basin were performed with simulated PAEs levels in different environmental media. As to the results of health risk assessment based on groundwater pollution simulations in different scenarios, the main exposure routes were inhalation and dermal contact. The 95% UL of cancer risk and non-cancer risk in each scenario were all below the threshold of health hazard effects. In the part of management decision-making application tools, the distribution and correlation of specific pollutants at specific time points and specific media can be observed through hot spot analysis, Sankerry diagram, and river survey fingerprints, which can then be used as a reference for management decision-making. Finally, the release management and system of toxic chemicals were completed this year: 1) explored the strategic management and the release inventory platform of five countries; 2) provide the suggestions for the local strategic release management of toxic chemicals and the structure of Taiwan Toxic Release Inventory; 3) explored the validation of the release reporting data of toxic chemicals and compiled the steps of uncertainty estimations; 4) held a expert meeting for discussing the strategies of toxic release inventory in Taiwan; 5) compiled the application tools for the release data of toxic chemicals of America and Europe; 6) DEHP, BPA, VCM, and NP were taken as examples for the integrated analyses of the Taiwan Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (Taiwan RSEI) model; 7) DEHP, DBP, DecaBDE, BPA, and NP were taken as examples for trend visualization in the cross-database (the releases reporting, operation scale, and environmental fate of toxic chemicals); 8) provided the consultant for estimation, calculation methods, and data interface of toxic chemical releases.